Prevalence and characteristics of anemia in new cases of pulmonary tuberculosis in a tertiary care hospital in Uttarakhand, India
Anemia in pulmonary tuberculosis
Background: Anemia and tuberculosis (TB) are major public health problems worldwide. The prevalence and characteristics of anemia in TB differ in various studies. The prevalence, type and predictors of anemia in newly diagnosed patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and correlation between anemia and various variables concerning PTB were studied.
Methods: In this observational, cross-sectional study, 1769 presumptive patients with tuberculosis attending a tertiary care hospital in Uttarakhand, India, were investigated and 242 newly diagnosed (109 sputum-positive and 133 sputum-negative) patients with PTB were selected for further work-up for anemia.
Results: Anemia was seen in 72.7% patients and was mild in 44.2%. Anemia of chronic disease was seen in 58.5%, iron deficiency anemia in 26.7%, megaloblastic anemia in 12.5% and dimorphic anemia in 2.2% patients. Both anemia and its severity had significant associations with body mass index (BMI) (p<0.05 each) but not with age, gender, socioeconomic status, literacy, dietary habits, disease and sputum positivity (p>0.05 each). BMI (r=0.705, p<0.0001) and age (r=0.135, p=0.017) correlated significantly with hemoglobin levels but only BMI was an independent predictor (p<0.0001) of hemoglobin levels.
Conclusion: Anemia is common in new patients with PTB and occurs mostly due to chronic disease. It correlates with age and BMI but is only BMI-dependent.